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Cob cinva ramM J Epko duckchow at ix.netcom.com
Tue Jan 6 18:51:59 PST 1998
At 09:41 AM 1/6/98 -0500, Doug Patterson wrote: >I'm forwarding this request in the hopes that someone on the list can help. >Please respond to Lenore directly. > >>Have you any idea where I may find a cinva ram or the plans >>to build one? Thank You. * I wrote none of the following. It's all from other sources. (Good to see Steve Berlant and Doug Patterson here among us.) Apologies if this is deemed too long & off-topic... * The "Cinva" ram was invented in Columbia in 1952, used in international aid projects, and was made popular by its continued listing in the legendary Whole Earth Catalogs. I don't know where this model may be currently found. It's like "Kleenex" - there are many presses, but because of the WEC, people call them all "Cinva Rams". I do know that lever-action earth block presses, which is what a Cinva ram is, are in active use all over the world. The Earthbuilders Encyclopedia lists 14 different names used in different countries. I have personally seen models that were made in France, India, and Australia (none of which were mentioned in the EC). The press I used here in the Colorado was hydraulic, as almost all of them are in this country. Here's some addresses (don't ask for a "Cinva Ram" unless you are doing an historical re-enactment; ask for a "lever-action earth block press"). CRATerre Centre Simone Signoret Bolte Postale 53 F-38090 Villefontaine FRANCE *By far* the leading organization for all forms of earth construction. The name mean the International Center for Earth Construction. They are one of the members of BASIN (Building Advisory Service and Information Network), which is a European consortium of Appropriate Technology groups, also fabulous. Info on them may be requested at the same time. Development Alternatives Tara Nirman Kendra B-32, Institutional Area, New Mehrauli Rd New Delhi 110016 INDIA This is the best AT organization I've ever seen. One of their projects was to design a earth block press and sell it at cost all over India to reduce the consumption of fuel used to make bricks (the most common construction method in rural areas). I went in their office - one room has a large barrel vault ceiling made entirely of unreinforced blocks with no mortar. Earthbuilders Encyclopedia (and) Southwest Solaradobe School POB 153 Bosque, NM 87006 These guys aren't great (all their publications are primarily paid ads and appear to be produced by a 10th grade journalism class), but they do know their craft, and its the only game in town for general info. Adobe International POB 1284 Grants, NM 87020 505.287.3961 They make hydraulic machines, but might know who manufacturers a lever-action. * Pacific Adobe sell an HP3 interlocking block system cinva ram. The listed price is $3,000.00 makes up to 400 blocks daily. They are located at 13207 Hemrick Ave, Sylmar, CA 91342 Voice 818.362.0235 fax 818.362.6132 * Mother Earth News (April/May 1996) had an article about building a hydraulic ram for around $100. I think it is similar to the Cinva. Alternative Energy Engineering (http://www.asis.com/aee/ or 1-800-777-6609) sells the Fleming Ram pump for not too much more. Most full service RE companies sell some similar type of ram. * >A good source for information on earth ram presses and lots of other >"appropriate" technology is: >SKAT, Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management >Vadianstrasse 42 >CH-9000 St. Gallen >Switzerland >They put out a newsletter called "BASIN-NEWS", BASIN being the "Building >Advisory Service and Information Network which is furhter broken down into >the Wall building advisory service, cements and binders advisory service, >roofing advisory service, and earth building advisory service. >Also: >CRATerre - International Centre for Earth Construction >Centre Simone Signoret/ BP 53 >F-38090 Villefontaine >France >Tierra Sol y Mar >505 Santa Clara Avenue >Venice CA 90291 >(310) 392-2775 * > John Cruickshank's photos of the Cinva Ram manual >pressed-earth-block machine are up at the Natural Building >Resources site, in the Gallery section: > http://www.zianet.com/blackrange/ tvoivozhd>>>followup on the "urp" duckchow for those who don't want to (or don't know how) to dig through the archives for sources on hydraulic CEB block machines which they probably can't afford to buy anyhow and if they could, cannot be economically justified on a single house (or ten), here is the VITA source on plans for the old CINVA block machine---and a few other gadgets if you are on the "appropriate technology" wavelength. VITA Village Technology Center and Catalog MAKING BUILDING BLOCKS WITH CINVA-RAM BLOCK PRESS A supervisor's guide to using the CINVA-Ram block press. Detailed instructions for mixing material, organizing construction, and more. $6.25 ENGLISH 26pp. ISBN 0-86619-012-0 tvoivozhd>>>might as well throw this in for free, since most of the CEB construction and research (or anything truly low-cost) is taking place outside of the U.S., with India a principal player. Vol 7 No 5 May 1997 The monthly newsletter on issues of sustainable development. The views expressed in the articles in this newsletter are those of the authors and not necessarily those of Development Alternatives. Owner, printer and publisher: Dr. Ashok Khosla. Published from: B-32 Tara Crescent, Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi - 110 016. Tel: 91+11+685-1158; 696-7938 Fax: 91+11+686-6031 Email: tara at sdalt.ernet.in tvoivozhd>>>The basic argument and description of CEB TNK - Our Name is in Mud by Mukesh Jain Use of mud in spite of proven and durable building material since long, is restricted to the poorer communities only. It is the oldest building material to be used by man. In the river sites of the Mesopotamian, Egyptic, Chinese and the Indus valley civilizations, readily available alluvial soil was used to make the first mud brick dwellings. Jericho, history's earliest city, had houses built in raw earth. Harappa and Mohenjo Daro saw the use of adobe walls faced with oven baked bricks. In the Americas too, there are ancient examples of earth being used as a building material. The Mexican city of Tenochtitlan had structures built of earth walls faced with lime rendering. With the advent of industrial revolution, new construction technologies spread, and earth construction skills were lost or relegated to the vernacular builder. Impetus was given to earth architecture in the post World War II years due to economic and energy saving concerns. To create awareness about its useful, durable, comfortable qualities among middle class and affluent groups, Tara Nirman Kendra is taking a step forward. With manual compaction using simple press like BALRAM and scientifically backed technology inputs like stabilisation, durable 3-4 storey load bearing structures can easily be built in mud. The bricks used in mud buildings are called Compressed Earth Blocks - CEB. Advantages of CEB * Low cost in comparison with burnt clay bricks. * Low energy consumption because it is sun dried. * Comparable in strength with burnt clay bricks * Aesthetic in nature * Labour intensive * Utilises local resources, materials and labour * Can be made with compact, transportable and low cost manual press BALRAM - costing Rs.14000/- only * Stabilisation with cement / lime increases resistance to erosion Production * 1000 - 1200 blocks/ day produced by team of 5 labourers. * Blocks cured for 2-3 weeks, then air dried for 1 week. * Manually operated machine like BALRAM is adequate for production of high density stabilised soil blocks. Technical Details * Size of CEB is 230 X 108 X 76 mm, same as that of burnt clay bricks. 230 X 230 X 76 mm size also possible. * Ideal soil for stabilised CEB is red sandy loam. Unsuitable soils for CEB are * Acidic soils with pH < 7 . * Soils with high gravel or silt percentage. * Soils containing more than 0.5% organic matter. Suitability of soil for CEB * Acceptable range of particle size gradation ............................................( in % ) coarse gravel ................................0 fine gravel ..................................0-10 coarse sand .................................20-35 fine sand ...................................20-30 silt ........................................15-30 clay ........................................10-30 Stabilisation - with 4-7% cement Stabiliser is added to CEB during its production to prevent softening of blocks on absorption of moisture. The possible stabilisers are cement, lime or both. Cement is recommended for red sandy loams, low clayey soils. If clay content is very low, the lime remains free. It can be remedied by replacing 15-40% of cement (by weight) with a pozzolanic materials like fly ash, rice husk etc. If clay content is high than lime cement combination may be used or sand may be added to the soil to reduce the clay content. Other Details * Dry compressive strength - 50-70 kg/sqcm * Wet compressive strength - 30-40 kg/sqcm (after 48 hrs) against recommended 20 kg/sqcm as per IS code adequate for 2/3 storey house. * Water absorption 10-14% only, against allowance of 20% as per IS code for CEB. Economy in use of CEB i) CEB masonry leads to about 15-20% saving in cost when compared with conventional masonry because ii) Only 400-425 CEBs are needed/cum of masonry against 500/cum of burnt clay brick masonry. iii) Mud mortar is used in CEB masonry against cement sand mortar in conventional masonry. Building in CEB Tara Nirman Kendra has built many modern buildings in CEB - Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts at Delhi; workshop building of Sushant School of Architecture at Gurgaon; hospital building at Bodhgaya, construction project for Rural Development and Self Employment Institute at Nelamangala; Bangalore district , Institutional building for the Dharmadhikari of The Temple Trust of Dharmasthala, 50 IAY houses at Azadpura in Bundelkhand. The world Headquarter building of TNK's parent organisation, Development Alternatives is also built entirely in CEB. All these buildings are standing testimony to the strength and virtuosity of the technology. For more info contact: Mukesh Jain TARA Nirman Kendra, Village Sultanpur, Mehrauli Gurgaon Road, New Delhi - 110 030 ----------------------------------------------------------------- tvoivozhd>>>and an interesting variant of standard CEB---an interlocking block which provides wall integrity without the necessity of mortar---further decreasing labor and material cost in construction. Dry Masonry without Tears: Hydraform (South Africa) Makes it Possible by Chitradeep Sengupta In the present age, we are accustomed to the concept of 'wet masonry', or construction using cement mortar to bond two bricks together, which we accept as the easiest, durable form of masonry. This is a very conventional form of construction and have been used for decades now. But, dry masonry using stones, or wood, ..etc., has been in use for centuries. Wood is a scarce material and use of stones is location specific. With the advent of quick, snap-o-fit plastic elements and systems for a lot of things in our life, it did not take long for people to realise that the same could probably be done with the so-called 'conventional' wet masonry using brick and cement. In the last three to four decades, easy to place, interlocking dry block masonry have been demonstrated by many organisations all over the world. Dry block masonry is not only simpler and faster to use, but also helps in reducing the cost of masonry to a large extent because hardly any mortar is used. The interesting part is the way these blocks are interlocked. Each of the interlocking blocks has its own merits and demerits. Some, for example, are hollow which not only reduce their weights but also let reinforcement rods be passed through them. Some look very aesthetic in a masonry and some have very intricate and fool proof interlocking system. However what many of these blocks do not have is the ease of use, water tightness, and flexibility in length. The hydraform block seems to almost(!) - not fully as yet - solve these problems also. Hydraform (S.A.) have developed a mould and a machine for dry interlocking block masonry using one of the basic construction materials - earth. The Hydraform building system uses a concept of dry interlocking blocks. These blocks slide one on top of the other to make each course. This concept reduces the use of mortar to the minimum. The blocks have positive grooves on the top and front and negative grooves at the bottom and back of the block. This ensures: * Interlocking two blocks together both horizontally as well as vertically. * Reducing the water seepage through the walls due to the positive groove on the top and front face * Having flexibility in the length of the block. This is also possible due to the direction of compression in the machine which is along the length of the block and can be varied to an extent * Ease and simplicity of use along the length of the wall. The blocks are easy to use and long walls can be erected at a very fast rate. The skill level required of the mason is higher than the usual. Great care has to be taken for achieving vertical and horizontal alignment. However there is an inherent advantage in these blocks. Even if the wall is not properly aligned, the block layer does not have to (in the worst case) break down the wall and rebuild it. He just has to remove these blocks carefully, without damaging them. After that they can be relaid. A mason normally does not let his wall go off the plumb or the string by more than say a cm or so. This can be corrected by gentle, careful strokes of a "rubber" hammer. This rubber hammer has been prescribed as one of the useful tools for masonry using the Hydraform blocks. It does not take long to train a mason in using these blocks. A week of using these blocks in different conditions will get him trained in the use of these blocks. Field experience will make him a mason with expertise. Working on an actual project quickly builds up skill. Unlike most of other interlocking blocks, the Hydrablocks require some 'shaving' and/or chipping if two blocks have to be laid perpendicular to each other. Once the basic principle of using these blocks dry at various joint conditions and angles is understood it is easy to make walls at any given condition. The grooving of these blocks have a gap of about 1-1.5 mm between the +ve and the -ve groove when placed together. The reason behind this 'play' is ease of sliding these blocks one on top of the other, for ease of laying as well as the fact that any defect in the mould might result in uneven sheering of these blocks. This however results in two problems. (i) Water seepage through this gap if exposed outside (this is through the edges mainly). Solution is nominal plastering only at the top, edges, corners and joints. A well made hydraform wall will not require to be plastered on its face to protect it laterally from rains (water seepage inside). Thus they go a long way in saving the basic cost of masonry by saving on the use of mortar to the extent of 60-80% depending upon the kind of wall built. (ii) Uneven shearing of the block if the load applied comes directly on the mid point of the block as this portion is, shall we say, a simply supported portion of the block. Solution is use of slip or very thin layer of mortar or masala. Other principles of the Earth block masonry hold true for these blocks. Being made of earth they need stabilisation for strength and resistance to forces of nature. Like most other interlocking blocks, the Hydra blocks also have a very big advantage over wet block masonry systems. If you want to alter the plan of your house, what would you do? Break down and build it all over again? That would be quite expensive. With these dry interlocking hydraform block walls you just have to take the blocks out and place them according to the new plans. This recycleability is quite an advantage. Contact for more details: Chitradeep Sengupta, Architect TARA Nirman Kendra, Village: Sultanpur, Mehrauli Gurgaon Road, New Delhi - 110 030, Tel: (011) 680-1521 tvoivozhd>>>The cost of a CEB block machine from India (not the South African interlocking block machine) which is probably compatible with interlocking-block molds (inquire to be sure), at last count was 14000 Rupees. As of 15 Dec. 1997, the exchange rate is as follows: Rate: Indian Rupee per 1 United States Dollar : 39.575001 Rate: United States Dollar per 1 Indian Rupee : 0.025268 So, the price in India is currently $353.75, plus inland and ocean freight, brokerage, and import duty, if any---probably around $800 total. tvoivozhd>>>Other publications and equipment available from India: Publications Available from CSR General Publications Compressed Earth Block (CEB) Technology Ferrocement Building Technology Prefabricated Ferrocement Biogas Plants Renewable Energy For more details on any of these publications, or to order them, please contact Guy at csr at auroville.org.in. General Publications An Integrated Approach towards a Sustainable Future (report). Database for the Auroville Area: Climatic Data (report). Renewable Energy and Appropriate Technology in Auroville (pamphlet). Compressed Earth Block (CEB) Technology Auram Press (brochure). Auram Press 240 & 290. User Manual. Auram Press 3000. User Manual. Auram Press 3000 (video presentation). Auroville Experience with Mud. Paper presented at the Mud in Habitat conference in Manipal, 1990. Building with Compressed Earth Blocks in Auroville. Paper published in the Proceedings of the International Seminar on Low-Cost Housing and Infrastructure, New Delhi, 1994. CEB Training Course. Summary of Lectures. CEB Training Manual for Block Makers. CEB Training Manual for Technicians and Entrepreneurs. Introduction to Block Yard Organisation (manual). Ferrocement Building Technology Design of Cost-Effective Ferrocement Latrine Floor Slabs (paper). Ferrocement Doors: Fabrication and Specification. Paper published in Ferrocement Journal. Ferrocement Model House in Kottakarai (report). Ferrocement Roof Channels: >From Ferrocement to Un-Ferrocement (article). Manufacturing and Specifications (report). Ferrocement Roof Channels (photographic report). Quasi Ferrocement Roof/Flooring Channel Design Tables with Calculation Procedure and Some Application Strategies. Proceedings Ferrocement Training Course held at AV-BC in February, 1991. Prefabricated Ferrocement Biogas Plants Ferrocement Biogas Applications. Paper presented at the 3rd International Ferrocement Conference, Delhi, 1988, and published in the Ferrocement Journal. Prefabricated Ferrocement Biogas Plants. Final report. Prefabricated Ferrocement Biogas Plants. General Presentation. Prefabricated Ferrocement Biogas Plants. User Manual. Techno-Economic Feasibility Study of Ferrocement Biogas Plants. Renewable Energy Manual of Aquatic Weeds Lagooning in Tropical Regions (with permission from Prof. Charbonnel, France). Auroville Multiblade Wind Pump. Presentation and Final Report. CSR Smokeless Chulas. User Manual. End-User Survey of Wind Pumps and other Pumping Systems in South India. Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems. User Manual. Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping Workshop. Report Last updated on 10/17/97 13:09:59 by the Auroville Webmaster © 1996 all material copyrighted by AuroNET! unless stated otherwise. tvoivozhd>>>oh, yeah---the two S. Africa companies manufacturing CEB machines: Bricks from soil FOR thousands of years, earth has been one of the most widely used construction materials and it is still utilised today by about 30% of the world's population, especially in developing countries and rural areas. Now at least two local companies are offering a way in which earth can counter South Africa's low-cost housing crisis and reduce building costs by up to 70%. Afrikya Development and Hydraform sell machines which turn most kinds of soil into bricks. Using compression technology, their "mobile brickyards" convert earth with a certain clay content, and a mix of 5% to 10% cement, into blocks which can be used in most types of buildings. Hydraform director Robert Plattner says these blocks are cheaper to produce because the soil at a building site makes up the bulk of the raw material used. As a result, there is no costly transport or burning and, in addition, labour costs are lower. (from the S. African "Business Times", Sunday Edition., URL is: http://www.btimes.co.za/97/0831/survey/survey2.htm * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ M J Epko duckchow at ix.netcom.com almost Wyoming, north of Nebraska, USA by way of New Mexico (not soon enough) - for now, Minnesota ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Each morning sees some task begin, Each evening sees it close; Something attempted, something done, Has earned a night's repose. - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, "The Village Blacksmith"
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